Table 3 Definitions of DSM-5
personality disorder trait domains
|DOMAINS (Polar Opposites) and Facets||Definitions|
|NEGATIVE AFFECTIVITY (vs. Emotional Stability)|
Frequent and intense experiences of high
levels of a wide range of negative emotions (e.g., anxiety, depression,
guilt/ shame, worry, anger) and their behavioral (e.g., self-harm)
and interpersonal (e.g., dependency) manifestations.
Instability of emotional experiences
and mood; emotions that are easily aroused, intense, and/or out
of proportion to events and circumstances.
Feelings of nervousness, tenseness, or
panic in reaction to diverse situations; frequent worry about the
negative effects of past unpleasant experiences and future negative
possibilities; feeling fearful and apprehensive about uncertainty;
expecting the worst to happen.
Fears of being alone due to rejection
by—and/or separation from—significant others, based in a lack of
confidence in one’s ability to care for oneself, both physically
Adaptation of one’s behavior to the actual
or perceived interests and desires of others even when doing so
is antithetical to one’s own interests, needs, or desires.
Persistent or frequent angry feelings;
anger or irritability in response to minor slights and insults;
mean, nasty, or vengeful behavior. See also Antagonism.
Persistence at tasks or in a particular
way of doing things long after the behavior has ceased to be functional
or effective; continuance of the same behavior despite repeated
failures or clear reasons for stopping.
Restricted affectivity (lack of)
The lack of this
facet characterizes low levels of
Negative Affectivity. See Detachment
for definition of this facet.
Avoidance of socioemotional experience,
including both withdrawal from interpersonal interactions (ranging
from casual, daily interactions to friendships to intimate relationships)
and restricted affective experience and expression, particularly
limited hedonic capacity.
Preference for being alone to being with
others; reticence in social situations; avoidance of social contacts
and activity; lack of initiation of social contact.
Avoidance of close or romantic relationships,
interpersonal attachments, and intimate sexual relationships.
Lack of enjoyment from, engagement in,
or energy for life’s experiences; deficits in the capacity to feel
pleasure and take interest in things.
Feelings of being down, miserable, and/or
hopeless; difficulty recovering from such moods; pessimism about
the future; pervasive shame and/or guilt; feelings of inferior self-worth;
thoughts of suicide and suicidal behavior.
Little reaction to emotionally arousing
situations; constricted emotional experience and expression; indifference
and aloofness in normatively engaging situations.
Expectations of—and sensitivity to—signs
of interpersonal ill-intent or harm; doubts about loyalty and fidelity
of others; feelings of being mistreated, used, and/or persecuted
|ANTAGONISM (vs. Agreeableness)|
Behaviors that put the individual at
odds with other people, including an exaggerated sense of self-importance
and a concomitant expectation of special treatment, as well as a
callous antipathy toward others, encompassing both an unawareness
of others’ needs and feelings and a readiness to use others in the
service of self-enhancement.
Use of subterfuge to influence or control
others; use of seduction, charm, glibness, or ingratiation to achieve
Dishonesty and fraudulence; misrepresentation
of self; embellishment or fabrication when relating events.
Believing that one is superior to others
and deserves special treatment; self-centeredness; feelings of entitlement;
condescension toward others.
Engaging in behavior designed to attract
notice and to make oneself the focus of others’ attention and admiration.
Lack of concern for the feelings or problems
of others; lack of guilt or remorse about the negative or harmful
effects of one’s actions on others.
Orientation toward immediate gratification,
leading to impulsive behavior driven by current thoughts, feelings,
and external stimuli, without regard for past learning or consideration
of future consequences.
Disregard for—and failure to honor—financial
and other obligations or commitments; lack of respect for—and lack
of follow-through on—agreements and promises; carelessness with
Acting on the spur of the moment in response
to immediate stimuli; acting on a momentary basis without a plan
or consideration of outcomes; difficulty establishing and following
plans; a sense of urgency and self-harming behavior under emotional
Difficulty concentrating and focusing
on tasks; attention is easily diverted by extraneous stimuli; difficulty
maintaining goal-focused behavior, including both planning and completing
Engagement in dangerous, risky, and potentially
self-damaging activities, unnecessarily and without regard to consequences;
lack of concern for one’s limitations and denial of the reality
of personal danger; reckless pursuit of goals regardless of the
level of risk involved.
Rigid perfectionism (lack of)
Rigid insistence on everything being
flawless, perfect, and without errors or faults, including one’s
own and others’ performance; sacrificing of timeliness to ensure
correctness in every detail; believing that there is only one right
way to do things; difficulty changing ideas and/or viewpoint; preoccupation
with details, organization, and order. The
this facet characterizes low levels of
Exhibiting a wide range of culturally
incongruent odd, eccentric, or unusual behaviors and cognitions,
including both process (e.g., perception, dissociation) and content
Unusual beliefs and experiences
Belief that one has unusual abilities,
such as mind reading, telekinesis, thought-action fusion, unusual
experiences of reality, including hallucination-like experiences.
Odd, unusual, or bizarre behavior, appearance,
and/or speech; having strange and unpredictable thoughts; saying
unusual or inappropriate things.
Cognitive and perceptual dysregulation
Odd or unusual thought processes and
experiences, including depersonalization, derealization, and dissociative
experiences; mixed sleep-wake state experiences; thought-control