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Neurocognitive Disorders

DOI: 10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.222827

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The neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) (referred to in DSM-IV as “Dementia, Delirium, Amnestic, and Other Cognitive Disorders”) begin with delirium, followed by the syndromes of major NCD, mild NCD, and their etiological subtypes. The major or mild NCD subtypes are NCD due to Alzheimer’s disease; vascular NCD; NCD with Lewy bodies; NCD due to Parkinson’s disease; frontotemporal NCD; NCD due to traumatic brain injury; NCD due to HIV infection; substance/medication-induced NCD; NCD due to Huntington’s disease; NCD due to prion disease; NCD due to another medical condition; NCD due to multiple etiologies; and unspecified NCD. The NCD category encompasses the group of disorders in which the primary clinical deficit is in cognitive function, and that are acquired rather than developmental. Although cognitive deficits are present in many if not all mental disorders (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorders), only disorders whose core features are cognitive are included in the NCD category. The NCDs are those in which impaired cognition has not been present since birth or very early life, and thus represents a decline from a previously attained level of functioning.

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Table 1 Neurocognitive domains
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Table 2 Severity ratings for traumatic brain injury

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