0
0

Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders

DOI: 10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.991543

Sections

Excerpt

Trauma- and stressor-related disorders include disorders in which exposure to a traumatic or stressful event is listed explicitly as a diagnostic criterion. These include reactive attachment disorder, disinhibited social engagement disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, and adjustment disorders. Placement of this chapter reflects the close relationship between these diagnoses and disorders in the surrounding chapters on anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, and dissociative disorders.

Your session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In to Access Full Content
 
Username
Password
Sign in via Athens (What is this?)
Athens is a service for single sign-on which enables access to all of an institution's subscriptions on- or off-site.
Not a subscriber?

Subscribe Now/Learn More

PsychiatryOnline subscription options offer access to the DSM-5 library, books, journals, CME, and patient resources. This all-in-one virtual library provides psychiatrists and mental health professionals with key resources for diagnosis, treatment, research, and professional development.

Need more help? PsychiatryOnline Customer Service may be reached by emailing PsychiatryOnline@psych.org or by calling 800-368-5777 (in the U.S.) or 703-907-7322 (outside the U.S.).

References

Bryant RB, Friedman MJ, Spiegel D, et al: A review of acute stress disorder in DSM-5. Depress Anxiety 28(9):802–817, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Casey P, Maracy M, Kelly BD, et al: Can adjustment disorder and depressive episode be distinguished? Results from ODIN. J Affect Disord 92(2–3):291–297, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Fabrega HJr, Mezzich JE, Mezzich AC: AD as a marginal or transitional illness category in DSM-III. Arch Gen Psychiatry 44(6):567–572, 1987
[PubMed]
 
Foster P, Oxman T: A descriptive study of AD diagnoses in general hospital patients. Isr J Psychol Med 11:153–157, 1994
 
Friedman MJ, Resick PA, Bryant RA, Brewin CR: Considering PTSD for DSM-5. Depress Anxiety 28(9):750–769, 2011
[PubMed] | [CrossRef]
 
Kaplow JB, Layne CM, Pynoos RS, et al: DSM-V diagnostic criteria for bereavement-related disorders in children and adolescents: developmental considerations. Psychiatry 75(3):243–266, 2012
[PubMed] | [CrossRef]
 
Popkin MK, Callies AL, Colón EA, Stiebel V: Adjustment disorders in medically ill patients referred for consultation in a university hospital. Psychosomatics 31(4):410–414, 1990
[PubMed]
 
Portzky G, Audenaert K, van Heeringen K: Adjustment disorder and the course of the suicidal process in adolescents. J Affect Disord 87(2–3):265–270, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Prigerson HG, Horowitz MJ, Jacobs SC, et al: Prolonged grief disorder: psychometric validation of criteria proposed for DSM-V and ICD-11. PLoS Med 6(8):e1000121, 2009
[PubMed]
 
Runeson BS, Beskow J, Waern M: The suicidal process in suicides among young people. Acta Psychiatr Scand 93(1):35–42, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Strain JJ, Friedman MJ: Considering adjustment disorders as stress response syndromes for DSM-5. Depress Anxiety 28(9):818–823, 2011
[PubMed] | [CrossRef]
 
Strain JJ, Smith GC, Hammer JS, et al: Adjustment disorder: a multisite study of its utilization and interventions in the consultation-liaison psychiatric setting. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 20(3):139–149, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Sung SC, Dryman MT, Marks E, et al: Complicated grief among individuals with major depression: prevalence, comorbidity, and associated features. J Affect Disord 134(1–3):453–458, 2011
[PubMed] | [CrossRef]
 
Boris NW, Hinshaw-Fuselier SS, Smyke AT, et al: Comparing criteria for attachment disorders: establishing reliability and validity in high-risk samples. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 43(5):568–577, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Chisholm K: A three year follow-up of attachment and indiscriminate friendliness in children adopted from Romanian orphanages. Child Dev 69(4):1092–1106, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Drury SS, Gleason MM, Theall KP, et al: Genetic sensitivity to the caregiving context:the influence of 5httlpr and BDNF val66met on indiscriminate social behavior. Physiol Behav 106(5):728–735, 2012
[PubMed]
 
Gleason MM, Fox NA, Drury S, et al: Validity of evidence-derived criteria for reactive attachment disorder: indiscriminately social/disinhibited and emotionally withdrawn/inhibited types. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 50(3):216–231, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Hodges J, Tizard B: Social and family relationships of ex-institutional adolescents. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 30(1):77–97, 1989
[PubMed]
 
O’Connor TG, Rutter M: Attachment disorder behavior following early severe deprivation: extension and longitudinal follow-up. English and Romanian Adoptees Study Team. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39(6):703–712, 2000
[PubMed]
 
O’Connor TG, Marvin RS, Rutter M, et al: Child-parent attachment following early institutional deprivation. Dev Psychopathol 15(1):19–38, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Rutter M, Colvert E, Kreppner J, et al: Early adolescent outcomes for institutionally-deprived and non-deprived adoptees, I: disinhibited attachment. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 48(1):17–30, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Rutter M, Kreppner J, Sonuga-Barke E: Emanuel Miller Lecture: Attachment insecurity, disinhibited attachment, and attachment disorders: where do research findings leave the concepts?J Child Psychol Psychiatry 50(5):529–543, 2009
[PubMed]
 
Smyke AT, Zeanah CH, Gleason MM, et al: A randomized controlled trial comparing foster care and institutional care for children with signs of reactive attachment disorder. Am J Psychiatry 169(5):508–514, 2012
[PubMed]
 
Tizard B, Hodges J: The effect of early institutional rearing on the development of eight year old children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 19(2):99–118, 1978
[PubMed]
 
Tizard B, Rees J: The effect of early institutional rearing on the behaviour problems and affectional relationships of four-year-old children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 16(1):61–73, 1975
[PubMed]
 
van IJzendoorn MH, Sagi-Schwartz A: Cross-cultural patterns of attachment:universal and contextual dimensions, in Handbook of Attachment. Edited by Cassidy J, Shavers P. New York, Guilford, 2009, pp 880–905
 
Wolkind SN: The components of “affectionless psychopathy” in institutionalized children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 15(3):215–220, 1974
[PubMed]
 
Zeanah CH, Smyke AT, Dumitrescu A: Attachment disturbances in young children, II: indiscriminate behavior and institutional care. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41(8):983–989, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Zeanah CH, Smyke AT, Koga S, et al: Attachment in institutionalized and community children in Romania. Child Dev 76(5):1015–1028, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Adreano JM, Cahill L: Sex influences on the neurobiology of learning and memory. Learn Mem 16(4):248–266, 2009
[PubMed]
 
Barton KA, Blanchard EB, Hickling EJ: Antecedents and consequences of acute stress disorder among motor vehicle accident victims. Behav Res Ther 34(10):805–813, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Brewin CR, Andrews B, Rose S, Kirk M: Acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in victims of violent crime. Am J Psychiatry 156(3):360–366, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Bryant R: Post-traumatic stress disorder vs traumatic brain injury. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 13(3):251–262, 2011a
[PubMed]
 
Bryant RA: Acute stress disorder as a predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review. J Clin Psychiatry 72(2):233–239, 2011b
[PubMed]
 
Bryant RA, Harvey AG: Initial posttraumatic stress responses following motor vehicle accidents. J Trauma Stress 9(2):223–234, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Bryant RA, Panasetis P: Panic symptoms during trauma and acute stress disorder. Behav Res Ther 39(8):961–966, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Bryant RA, Felmingham KL, Silove D, et al: The association between menstrual cycle and traumatic memories. J Affect Disord 131(1–3):398–401, 2011a
[PubMed]
 
Bryant RA, Friedman MJ, Spiegel D, et al: A review of acute stress disorder in DSM-5. Depress Anxiety 28(9):802–817, 2011b
[PubMed] | [CrossRef]
 
Classen C, Koopman C, Hales R, Spiegel D: Acute stress disorder as a predictor of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Am J Psychiatry 155(5):620–624, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Creamer M, Manning C: Acute stress disorder following an industrial accident. Australian Psychologist 33:125–129, 1998
 
Dunmore E, Clark DM, Ehlers A: A prospective investigation of the role of cognitive factors in persistent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after physical or sexual assault. Behav Res Ther 39(9):1063–1084, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Ehlers A, Mayou RA, Bryant B: Cognitive predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder in children: results of a prospective longitudinal study. Behav Res Ther 41(1):1–10, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Elklit A, Christiansen DM: ASD and PTSD in rape victims. J Interpers Viol 25(8):1470–1488, 2010
[PubMed]
 
Guthrie RM, Bryant RA: Auditory startle response in firefighters before and after trauma exposure. Am J Psychiatry 162(2):283–290, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Harvey AG, Bryant RA: Acute stress disorder after mild traumatic brain injury. J Nerv Ment Dis 186(6):333–337, 1998a
[PubMed]
 
Harvey AG, Bryant RA: Predictors of acute stress following mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj 12(2):147–154, 1998b
[PubMed]
 
Harvey AG, Bryant RA: The relationship between acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder: a prospective evaluation of motor vehicle accident survivors. J Consult Clin Psychol 66(3):507–512, 1998c
[PubMed]
 
Harvey AG, Bryant RA: Acute stress disorder across trauma populations. J Nerv Ment Dis 187(7):443–446, 1999a
[PubMed]
 
Harvey AG, Bryant RA: Predictors of acute stress following motor vehicle accidents. J Trauma Stress 12(3):519–525, 1999b
[PubMed]
 
Hinton DE, Lewis-Fernández R: The cross-cultural validity of posttraumatic stress disorder: implications for DSM-5. Depress Anxiety 28(9):783–801, 2011
[PubMed] | [CrossRef]
 
Holeva V, Tarrier N, Wells A: Prevalence and predictors of acute stress disorder and PTSD following road traffic accidents: thought control strategies and social support. Behavior Therapy 32:65–83, 2001
 
Kirmayer LJ: Confusion of the senses: implications of ethnocultural variations in somatoform and dissociative disorders for PTSD, in Ethnocultural Aspects of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Issues, Research, and Clinical Applications. Edited by Marsella AJ, Friedman MJ, Gerrity ET, Scurfield RM. Washington, DC, American Psychological Association, 1996, pp 131–164
 
Meares S, Shores EA, Taylor AJ, et al: Mild traumatic brain injury does not predict acute postconcussion syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79(3):300–306, 2008
[PubMed]
 
Nixon RD, Bryant RA: Peritraumatic and persistent panic attacks in acute stress disorder. Behav Res Ther 41(10):1237–1242, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Smith K, Bryant RA: The generality of cognitive bias in acute stress disorder. Behav Res Ther 38(7):709–715, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Solomon S, Laor N, McFarlane AC: Acute posttraumatic reactions in soldiers and civilians, in Traumatic Stress: The Effects of Overwhelming Experience on Mind, Body and Society. Edited by Van der Kolk BA, McFarlane AC, Weisaeth L. New York, Guilford, 1996, pp 102–114
 
Stein MB, McAllister TW: Exploring the convergence of posttraumatic stress disorder and mild traumatic brain injury. Am J Psychiatry 166(7):768–776 , 2009
[PubMed]
 
Strain JJ, Friedman MJ: Considering adjustment disorders as stress response syndromes for DSM-5. Depress Anxiety 28(9):818–823, 2011
[PubMed] | [CrossRef]
 
Warda G, Bryant RA: Cognitive bias in acute stress disorder. Behav Res Ther 36(12):1177–1183, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Gleason MM, Fox NA, Drury S, et al: The validity of evidence-derived criteria for reactive attachment disorder: indiscriminately social/disinhibited and emotionally withdrawn/inhibited types. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 50(3):216–231, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Oosterman M, Schuengel C: Autonomic reactivity of children to separation and reunion with foster parents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 46(9):1196–1203, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Smyke AT, Dumitrescu A, Zeanah CH: Attachment disturbances in young children, I: the continuum of caretaking casualty. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41(8):972–982, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Smyke AT, Zeanah CH, Gleason MM, et al: A randomized controlled trial comparing foster care and institutional care for children with signs of reactive attachment disorder. Am J Psychiatry 169(5):508–514, 2012
[PubMed]
 
Tizard B, Rees J: The effect of early institutional rearing on the behaviour problems and affectional relationships of four-year-old children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 16(1):61–73, 1975
[PubMed]
 
Zeanah CH, Scheeringa M, Boris NW, et al: Reactive attachment disorder in maltreated toddlers. Child Abuse Negl 28(8):877–888, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Zeanah CH, Smyke AT, Koga S, et al: Attachment in institutionalized and community children in Romania. Child Dev 76(5):1015–1028, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Affi TO, Enns MW, Cox BJ, et al: Population attributable fractions of psychiatric disorders and suicide ideation and attempts associated with adverse childhood experiences. Am J Public Health 98(5):946–952, 2008
[PubMed]
 
Andrews B, Brewin CR, Philpott R, Stewart L: Delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review of the evidence. Am J Psychiatry 164(9):1319–1326, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Arnow BA, Hart S, Hayward C, et al: Severity of child maltreatment, pain complaints and medical utilization among women. J Psychiatr Res 34(6):413–421, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Basile KC, Smith SG, Breiding M, et al: Sexual Violence Surveillance: Uniform Definitions and Recommended Data Elements, Version 2.0. Atlanta, GA, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013
 
Beals J, Manson SM, Shore JH, et al: The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder among American Indian Vietnam veterans: disparities and context. J Trauma Stress 15(2):89–97, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Binder EB, Bradley RG, Liu W, et al: Association of FKBP5 polymorphisms and childhood abuse with risk of postraumatic stress disorder symptoms in adults. JAMA 299(11):1291–1305, 2008
[PubMed]
 
Blanco C: Epidemiology of PTSD, in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Edited by Stein DJ, Friedman MJ, Blanco C. Oxford, England, Wiley-Blackwell, 2011, pp 49–74
 
Breslau N: The epidemiology of trauma, PTSD, and other posttrauma disorders. Trauma Violence Abuse 10(3):198–210, 2009
[PubMed]
 
Brewin CR, Patel T: Auditory pseudohallucinations in United Kingdom war veterans and civilians with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 71(4):419–425, 2010
[PubMed]
 
Bryant RA: Posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury: can they co-exist?Clin Psychol Rev 21(6):931–948, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Bryant RA, Friedman MJ, Spiegel D, et al: A review of acute stress disorder in DSM-5. Depress Anxiety 28(9):802–817, 2011
[PubMed] | [CrossRef]
 
Cougle JR, Resnick H, Kilpatrick DG: Does exposure to interpersonal violence increase risk of PTSD following subsequent exposure? Behav Res Ther 47(12):1012–1017, 2009
[PubMed]
 
Friedman MJ, Resick PA, Bryant RA, Brewin CR: Considering PTSD for DSM-5. Depress Anxiety 28(9):750–769, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Hinton D, Lewis-Fernández R: The cross-cultural validity of posttraumatic stress disorder: implications for DSM-5. Depress Anxiety 28(9):783–801, 2011
[PubMed] | [CrossRef]
 
Kartha A, Brower V, Saitz R, et al: The impact of trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder on healthcare utilization among primary care patients. Med Care 46(4):388–393, 2008
[PubMed]
 
Kessler RC, Sonnega A, Bromet E, et al: PTSD in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 52(12):1048–1060, 1995
[PubMed]
 
Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, et al: Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62(6):593–602, 2005a
[PubMed]
 
Kessler RC, Chui WT, Demler O, et al: Prevalence, severity, and comorbdity of 12-months DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62(6):617–627, 2005b
[PubMed]
 
Kessler RC, Lane MC, Shahly V, Stang PE: Accounting for comorbidity in assessing the burden of epilepsy among US adults: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Mol Psychiatry 17(7):748–758, 2005c
[PubMed] | [CrossRef]
 
Meares S, Shores EA, Taylor AJ, et al: Mild traumatic brain injury does not predict acute postconcussion syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79(3):300–306, 2008
[PubMed]
 
Nock MK, Hwang I, Sampson NA, Kessler RC: Mental disorders, comorbidity and suicidal behavior: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Mol Psychiatry 15(8):868–876, 2010
[PubMed]
 
Olatunji BO, Cisler JM, Tolin DF: Quality of life in the anxiety disorders: a meta-analytic review. Clin Psychol Rev 27(5):572–581, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Perilla JL, Norris FH, Lavizzo EA: Ethnicity, culture, and disaster response: identifying and explaining ethnic differences in PTSD six months after Hurricane Andrew. J Soc Clin Psychol 21:20–45, 2002
 
Pynoos RS, Steinberg AM, Layne CM, et al: DSM-5 PTSD diagnostic criteria for children and adolescents: a developmental perspective and recommendations. J Trauma Stress 22(5):391–398, 2009
[PubMed] | [CrossRef]
 
Rauch S, Morales KH. Zubritsky C, et al: Posttraumatic stress, depression and health among older adults in primary care. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 14(4):316–324, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Sareen J, Houlahan T, Cox B, Asmundson GJ: Anxiety disorders associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in the National Comorbidity Survey. J Nerv Ment Dis 193(7):450–454, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Sareen J, Cox BJ, Stein MB, et al: Physical and mental comorbidity, disability, and suicidal behavior associated with posttraumatic stress disorder in a large community sample. Psychosom Med 69(3):242–248, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Sayer NA, Carlson K, Schnurr P: Assessment of functioning and disability in individuals with PTSD, in Clinical Manual for the Management of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Edited by Benedek D, Wynn GH. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2011, pp 255–287
 
Scheeringa MS, Zeanah CH, Myers L, Putnam FW: Predictive validity in a prospective follow-up of PTSD in preschool children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 44(9):899–906, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Scheeringa MS, Wright MJ, Hunt JP, Zeanah CH: Factors affecting the diagnosis and prediction of PTSD symptomatology in children and adolescents. Am J Psychiatry 163(4):644–651, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Scheeringa MS, Zeanah CH, Cohen JA: PTSD in children and adolescents: toward an empirically based algorithm. Depress Anxiety 28(9):770–782, 2011
[PubMed] | [CrossRef]
 
Schell TL, Marshall GN: Survey of individuals previously deployed for OEF/OIF, in Invisible Wounds of War: Psychological and Cognitive Injuries, Their Consequences, and Services to Assist Recovery. Edited by Tanielian T, Jaycox LH. Santa Monica, CA, RAND Corporation, 2008, pp 87–115
 
Schnurr PP, Lunney CA, Bovin MJ, Marx BP: Posttraumatic stress disorder and quality of life: extension of findings to veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Clin Psychol Rev 29(8):727–735, 2009
[PubMed]
 
Smith K, Bryant RA: The generality of cognitive bias in acute stress disorder. Behav Res Ther 38(7):709–715, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Smith TC, Wingard DL, Ryan MA, et al: Prior assault and posttraumatic stress disorder after combat deployment. Epidemiology 19(3):505–512, 2008
[PubMed]
 
Stein MB, McAllister TW: Exploring the convergence of posttraumatic stress disorder and mild traumatic brain injury. Am J Psychiatry 166(7):768–776, 2009
[PubMed]
 
Strain JJ, Friedman MJ: Considering adjustment disorders as stress response syndromes for DSM-5. Depress Anxiety 28(9):818–823, 2011
[PubMed] | [CrossRef]
 
Thorp SR, Sones HM, Cook JM: Posttraumatic stress disorder among older adults, in Cognitive Behavior Therapy With Older Adults: Innovations Across Care Settings. Edited by Sorocco KH, Lauderdale S. New York, Springer, 2011, pp 189–217
 
Vogt DS, King DW, King LA: Risk pathways for PTSD: making sense of the literature, in Handbook of PTSD: Science and Practice. Edited by Friedman MJ, Keane TM, Resick PA. New York, Guilford, 2007, pp 99–115
 
Warda G, Bryant RA: Cognitive bias in acute stress disorder. Behav Res Ther 36(12):1177–1183, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Yaffe K, Vittinghoff E, Lindquist K, et al: Posttraumatic stress disorder and risk of dementia among US veterans. Arch Gen Psychiatry 67(6):608–613, 2010
[PubMed]
 
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Related Content
Articles
Books
DSM-5™ Clinical Cases > Chapter 7.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, 6th Edition > Chapter 14.  >
Topic Collections
Psychiatric News
PubMed Articles
 
  • Print
  • PDF
  • E-mail
  • Chapter Alerts
  • Get Citation